More insights from the Pakistan cotton industry

clipped from
it is a fact that conventional production methods (of cotton as

well as textiles) are associated with significant and avoidable environmental or health-

related costs
hese concerns have led to a number of actions to induce a switch to such

sustainable alternatives as organic cotton, integrated pest management, chemical-free

textile processing,


and effluent quality standards.
The cotton commodity chain can be divided into three broad stages: production,

processing, and marketing.
The textiles and apparel industry is a classic example of what Gary Gereffi (1994)

terms a buyer-driven global commodity chain, in other words one that is driven by large

retailers rather than producers or processors. According to Gereffi, commodity chains

have three main dimensions: 1) and input-output structure, 2) territoriality, ie spatial

dispersion or concentration of enterprises of different sizes and types, and 3) a

governance structure,
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